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94 Documents 

ness to the people if our Garrisons and civil officers were withdrawn 
and they left to govern themselves as soon as parliament have setled 
the división of the provinces, and put them in a way to go through 
with it, ñor shou'd we lose any advantage we at present reap from their 
trade. on the contrary it wou'd by a liberal treaty be very much aug- 
mented. 

having seen everything in Canadá that was the most worth seeing 
and wishing to get to Europe time enough to particípate of the summer 
I took my passage in a ship nam'd the Chalmly Capn. Cayley bound to 
Liverpool, and on Wednesday the 6th. at 12 oClock took our departure 
from Quebec, which exhibits a fine appearance from point Levey. it 
being a fine day and a pleasant gale our trip down the river was very 
intertaining, and we had a most delightfull view of the falls of Mont- 
morancy, the Island of Orleans. the shores on each side seem very well 
setled appearing in a manner as one continued villiage; towards the 
cióse of the day We pass'd several Islands, but they don't appear setled. 
we put our Pilot on shore on Green Island of which he was Lord, the 
next day, and on Fryday coasted along Anticosta an Island as yet un- 
setled. it is about 100 Miles long and is capable of producing every 
necessary of life. 

we meant to go by the streights of Bellisle which much shortens the 
distance going the Northwds. of New Foundland instead of the South- 
ward, but the winds not suiting we gaind the Banks, so that I lost the 
opportunity of seeing the Esquimaux, who generally board the vessels 
passing; after coming on the banks a thick fog surrounded us, and the 
wind subsiding we caught some fish, when the breeze springing up dis- 
pell'd the fog a little and we saw several Ships, Brigs etc fishing. after 
this we had nothing but thick weather with a fair wind till we were near 
the coast of Ireland, when it cleard up for a day or two. 

the 27th. on Thursday we made Cape Clear early in the morning, but 
the wind coming due South attended by a thick fog we lost sight of it 
again. some pilot boats boarded us from whom we got some fish and 
potatoes, but a strong gale coming on I was unluckily prevented landing 
as was my intention in Ireland. the weather continued thick with a 
strong gale all Fryday and next morning we made Holy head coasting 
along the Welch coast under our courses on acct. of the wind, but the 
weather clear and fine, and affording a good prospect of the country. 
we got to Liverpool Dock the 30th. in the evening when I instantly 
stept on shore, and next morning being Sunday was intertain'd with 
viewing the great improvements that had been made about the exchange 
and contiguous streets; I found also that several new Docks had been 
built since I was here in 1784. 

3. Project of Latin- American Confederation, 18 ¡6 

The consultations which have been in progress this summer at 
Rio de Janeiro lend additional interest to the following papers. 



Project of Latin- American Confederation, 1856 95 

For the opportunity to see them, the readers of the Review are in- 
debted to Mr. Luis M. Pérez, who discovered them in the course 
of his work in the Archivo Nacional of Cuba for the Department 
of Historical Research of the Carnegie Institution, in the preparation 
of his forthcoming Guide to the Materials for the History of the 
United States in Cuban Archives. It is unusual to be able to pre- 
sent in print the texts of confidential diplomatic documents of so 
recent date as 1856. Most such documents preserved in the cor- 
respondence of the captains-general of Cuba were doubtless included 
in the large masses of papers transported to Spain in 1898. But, 
partly by accident, partly through the patriotic foresight of the 
late Professor Manuel Villanova of the Instituto of Havana, cer- 
tain portions escaped transportaron and were preserved to the na- 
tional archives of Cuba. The papers here presented are found among 
the Villanova Papers in that repository, in the bundle devoted to 
1856. The translation is furnished by Mr. Pérez. Señor Juan de 
Zavala was the Spanish secretary of state, Señor Alfonso de Escal- 
ante was minister of Spain to the United States, October, 1855— 
November, 1856. The reader may compare Francisco Bilbao, In- 
iciativa de la América: Idea de un Congreso Federal de las Repúb- 
licas (pph., Paris, 1856) ; Lastarria, Covarrubias, Santa María, and 
Vicuña Mackenna, Colección de Ensayos i Documentos relativos á 
la Union i Confederación de los Pueblos Hispano- Americanos, pub- 
licada á espensas de la "Sociedad de la Union Americana de San- 
tiago de Chile" (Santiago, 1862) ; and J. M. Torres Caicedo, Union 
Latino-Americana, Pensamiento de Bolívar para formar una Liga 
Americana; su Origen y sus Desarrollos (Paris, 1865, French edi- 
tion, Paris, 1875). 

I. Zavala to the Captain-General of Cuba 

Primera Secretaria de Estado. 

Dirección Política. 
Exmo Señor 

Con esta fecha digo al Ministro Plenipotenciario de S.M. en Wash- 
ington lo que sigue 

" Se han recibido en esta Primera Secretaria los Despachos de 
V.E señalados con los números 18 y 20 y fechados el 23 y 28 de Febrero 
último, en los que dá cuenta de varias conferencias celebradas en su 
casa por los representantes de las Repúblicas españolas y del Ymperio 
del Brasil, con obgeto de formar una especie de Confederación ó Dieta 
que asegure su independencia y cuyo proyecto de bases, acordado en una 
de las reuniones, acompaña V.E. á su comunicación del 23. 

"Este pensamiento de estrecha alianza y mutua defensa, en que 
tanta parte ha tomado V.E., no puede menos de merecer la aprobación 



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del Gobierno de S.M. lealmente interesado en el desarrollo de aquellos 
ricos países, que durante largos siglos pertenecieron á la Corona de 
Castilla, y que tienen hoy, y tendrán siempre de común entre sí, y con 
nosotros la historia, las costumbres, la religión y el idioma. Agitadas las 
Repúblicas españolas por continuas y estériles luchas que aniquilan su 
vitalidad y las esponen á la ambición de cualquiera potencia fuerte que 
en el continente americano se levante, convieneles mas que á los Estados 
europeos agruparse para hacerse respetables y someter á una autoridad 
federativa y superior sus contiendas para ir estirpando tanto germen de 
discordias como ahora encierran. 

" El Gobierno de S.M. se complace también en que desechado el 
espíritu de intolerancia política, que anteriormente había presidido á esta 
idea de Congreso americano español, entre á formar parte integrante de 
él y aun á ser asiento de la futura Confederación, el imperio del Brasil, 
nación importante, de raza afin á la nuestra, y que en el desenvolvimiento 
progresivo de sus instituciones y de su industria está probando á las 
repúblicas sus vecinas, que en la actual situación del mundo civilizado, 
la monarquía, lejos de oponer un obstáculo á la libertad y prosperidad 
de los pueblos, es uno de sus mas firmes apoyos y de sus mas eficaces 
protectores. 

" De desear es por lo tanto que el proyecto de que V.E. habla en sus 
despachos se realice cuanto antes, contando como no dudo contará, con 
la cooperación de las potencias europeas, y muy particularmente con la 
de Ynglaterra y Francia, las cuales así como España verán con satis- 
facion consolidarse en América un orden de cosas estable, una política 
verdaderamente nacional, producto de sus necesidades comunes y de sus 
mutuos recelos, y una bien entendida libertad que al paso que proteja su 
sistema de gobierno y sus intereses, les sirva para estrechar mas y mas 
los vínculos que les unen con el antiguo continente y sobre todo con la 
nación de que proceden, que un dia se llamó su metrópoli y que se 
considera todavía por el afecto que profesa á los españoles de allende 
los mares como una madre cariñosa. 

" No concluiré este Despacho sin advertir á V.E. que entre las bases 
de confederación que me remite y que en su gran mayoría son aceptables 
y apropósito para alcanzar el obgeto de esa asociación internacional, hay 
alguna que debe considerarse como contraria á los adelantos que tanto 
necesitan las repúblicas americanas, y que en nada contribuirá por otra 
parte á afianzar sus derechos legítimos y á desvanecer cualesquiera peli- 
gros que en un porvenir mas próximo ó mas remoto pudieran presentarse. 
Citaré á V.E., por ejemplo, la que exige el cambio de nacionalidad á 
los concesionarios de obras públicas como ferro-carriles y canales, pues 
ademas de que semejante prohibición privaría á los países confederados 
de inmensos capitales y elementos considerables de riqueza, no debe 
perderse de vista que las compañías ó particulares que concurren con su 
industria y sus fortunas á este género de empresas, ni van á promover 
perturbaciones ni tienen interés en que se promuevan; antes por el 



Project of Latin-American Confederation, 1856 97 

contrario dan la fianza mas segura de estar identificados con la suerte 
de los pueblos adonde llevan una y otras. 

" Con las gestiones sucesivas que el pensamiento de alianza ocasione, 
cree el Gobierno de S. M. escusado encargar á V. E. el mayor tino 
y la mas esquisita prudencia para no ofender la susceptibilidad de la 
Union Anglo-americana á pesar de que esta no podrá ver en el enunciado 
proyecto mas que una imitación aunque imperfecta de lo que con bril- 
lante resultado llevaron á cabo las antiguas colonias inglesas después de 
su emancipación, y lo que hace siglos pactaron los cantones suizos y 
los Estados alemanes cuyas confederaciones, lejos de inspirar recelos á 
sus vecinos, son por ellos consideradas como una garanda de orden y de 
paz para la Europa entera. 

" Sírvase V. E. dar las gracias en nombre del Gobierno de S. M. 
á los representantes de las repúblicas americanas que le autorizaron 
para trasmitir, como escepcion honorífica para nosotros el proyecto 
de Dieta, haciéndoles partícipes de los sentimientos espresados en este 
Despacho, y asegurándoles que ninguna nación forma mas ardientes 
votos que esta para que aquella sea una verdad y para que una vez 
realizada contribuya al mayor esplendor y bienestar de la raza española 
en América." 

De Real orden lo traslado á V. E. para su conocimiento y efectos 
oportunos, remitiéndole copia del Despacho No. 20 del Ministro Pleni- 
potenciario de S. M. en Washington y del proyecto de Confederación 
de las repúblicas americanas. 

Dios gue á V. E. ms. as. Madrid 22 de Marzo 1856. 

Juan de Zavala. 

S[eñ]or Capitán General de la Ysla de Cuba. 

Está conforme. 

[Translation] 

Office of the First Secretary of State. 
Department of Foreign Affairs. 
Excellent Sir: 

Under this date I say the following to Her Majesty's minister 
plénipotentiary at Washington: 

" There have been received at this office of the First Secretary [of 
State] Your Excellency's despatches, marked numbers 18 and 20 and 
dated the 23d and 28th of last February, giving account of various 
conferences held at Your Excellency's house by the representatives 
of the Spanish republics and of the empire of BraziL with the object 
of forming a species of confederation or diet to insure their inde- 
pendence, and inclosing in the communication of the 23d the proposed 
bases agreed upon at one of the meetings. 

" This thought of cióse alliance and mutual def ense, in which Your 
Excellency has taken so much part, cannot but merit the approval of 
Her Majesty's government, loyally interested in the development of 
those rich countries which during long centuries belonged to the 

AM. HIST. REV. , VOL. XII. — 7. 



98 Documents 

crown of Castile, and which have to-day and will always have in com- 
mon with us the same history, customs, religión, and language. The 
Spanish republics, agitated by continued and sterile strife, which con- 
sumes their vitality and exposes them to the ambition of any strong 
power which may appear on the American continent, are more con- 
cerned than European states would be, to associate in order to make 
themselves more respected, and to submit their differences to a fed- 
erative and superior authority in order to eradicate from among them 
the many germs of discord they now contain. 

" Her Majesty's government is also pleased that the spirit of political 
intolerance which had previously controlled this idea of a Spanish-Amer- 
ican Congress should have been laid aside, and that the empire of Brazil, 
an important nation, of a race akin to ours, and which in the progres- 
sive development of her institutions and of her industry is proving 
to her neighbor republics that monarchy, in the present situation of 
the civilized world, so far from imposing an obstacle to the liberty and 
prosperity of peoples, is one of their firmest supports and their most 
effective protectors, should constitute an integral part, and even be 
the seat, of the future confederation. 

" It is therefore to be desired that the project of which Your Ex- 
cellency's despatches speak should be realized as soon as possible, 
with reliance, I doubt not, on the co-operation of the European powers, 
and very especially of England and France, who, like Spain, would 
view with satisfaction the consolidation of a stable order of things 
in America, and of a policy truly national, the product of their com- 
mon necessities and of their common apprehensions and of an enlight- 
ened liberty which, while protecting their system of government and 
their interests, would serve to link them closer to the Oíd World and 
above all to the nation of their origin, which once was called their 
mother-country, and which yet considers herself, because of the re- 
gard which she professes for the Spaniards beyond the seas, an affec- 
tionate mother. 

" I will not cióse this despatch without stating to Your Excellency that 
among the bases of confederation remitted, of which the great majority 
are acceptable and suitable to obtain the object of this international asso- 
ciation, there are some which ought to be considered contrary to the ad- 
vancement which is so necessary to the American republics and which, 
moreover, will nowise contribute to assure their legitímate rights ñor 
to remove whatever dangers may arise in the present or more remote 
future. I will mention to Your Excellency, for instance, that which 
requires a change of nationality on the part of those who receive 
concessions for public works, such as railroads and cañáis; for not 
only would a condition of this sort deprive the confederated countries 
of immense capital and considerable elements of wealth, but it should 
not be lost sight of that companies or private individuáis who con- 
tribute with their industry and their fortunes to this kind of enterprise 



Project of Latin-American Confederation, 1856 99 

neither promote disturbances ñor think it to their interest that they 
should be promoted; on the contrary, they give the surest guaranties 
of being identified with the lot of the country to which they carry 
both their industry and their fortunes. 

" Her Majesty's government considers it unnecessary to recommend 
to Your Excellency to use the greatest tact and the most exquisite pru- 
dence in the further steps which may be taken to carry out the idea 
of alliance, in order not to offend the susceptibility of the Anglo- 
American Union, in spite of the fact that it can see in the declared 
project nothing more than an imitation, though imperfect, of the unión 
which the ancient English colonies so brilliantly achieved after their 
emancipation, and of those which centuries ago were framed by the 
Swiss cantons and the Germán states, confederations which so far 
from inspiring their neighbors with apprehensions are by them con- 
sidered as a guaranty of order and peace for the whole of Europe. 

" Your Excellency will please to convey the thanks of Her Majesty's 
government to the representatives of the American republics who 
authorized Your Excellency to transmit the project of the diet, making 
an honorific exception of us; inform them of the sentiments expressed 
in this despatch and assure them that no nation entertains more ardent 
desires than ours that the diet be an accomplished fact, and that, once 
realized, it should contribute to the greater splendor and well-being 
of the Spanish race in America." 

By royal order I transmit this for Your Excellency's information 
and suitable purposes, inclosing copy of the despatch number 20 from 
Her Majesty's minister plenipotentiary at Washington and the project 
of confederation of the American republics. 

May God preserve Your Excellency many years. 

Juan de Zavala. 

Madrid, March 22, 1856. 

To the Captain-general of the Island of Cuba. 

A true copy. 

II. Escalante to Zavala 

Legación de España en Washington. 
Exmo. Señor. 

Muy Señor mió; 

En mi comunicación f[ec]ha 23. del actual, manifesté á V. E. que, 
fijo constantemente mi pensamiento en asegurar por todos los medios 
imaginables nuestra hermosa Antilla, nada omitia por mi parte con 
los Representantes aquí de la America Española, á fin de que conjura- 
sen el peligro que de esta poderosa República amenaza á aquellos 
Estados y que de otra manera necesariamente llegaría á comprometer 
nuestras mismas posesiones. También indicaba á V. E. la entrevista 
tenida entre dichos Señores y el Ministro de Francia, quien me habia 
pedido le presentase á ellos; las dos reuniones celebradas ya; y por 
último, la prudencia y tacto con que procuraba conducirme y atendida 



ioo Documents 

mi posición oficial y las circunstancias de los Gobiernos representados. 

Sin descanso en mis gestiones, puedo ahora comunicar á V. E. que 
ha tenido lugar nuevamente una junta privada, pero mas formal, en 
mi propia casa, á la cual han asistido los Representantes diplomáticos 
de Guatemala y S. Salvador, Nicaragua, Costarica, Perú, Venezuela 
y Brasil, únicos á la sazón en Washington, debiendo contarse igual- 
mente con los de Méjico y Nueva Granada que se hallan ausentes. 
El resultado de esta larga conferencia ha sido acordar que se proponga 
inmediatamente á sus Gobiernos la conveniencia de formar una espe- 
cie de Dieta ó Congreso, en que todos estén representados, y que provea 
á la defensa de la independencia común y establezca relaciones de una 
unión estrecha y permanente entre toda la antigua America Española y 
Rio Janeiro. Conforme al parecer de estos Señores los medios mas efica- 
ces y adecuados para el logro del referido propósito y que deberían ser 
objeto de la discusión del pretendido Congreso, son las que se apuntan 
en el adjunto escrito no. i, el cual han resuelto comunicar por mi con- 
ducto solo á España, si bien autorizándome á mi para que en nombre de 
ellos dé conocimiento verbal del asunto, aunque en concreto, á mis 
Colegas de Ynglaterra y Francia. Así lo he verificado, creyendo ambos 
Ministros de grande oportunidad este paso en el presente complicado 
estado de las cosas. 

Todo lo que, como debo, me apresuro á poner en noticia de V. E. 

Dios gue á V. E. ms. as. 
Washington 28. de Febrero de 1856. 

Exmo Señor, B. L. M. de V. E. su atento seguro servidor, 

(firmado) Alfonso de Escalante 
Está conforme. 

[Translation] 

Spanish Legation at Washington. 
Exceüent Sir: 

My dear Sir: 

In my communication dated the 23d instant I stated to Your Excel- 
lency that my thoughts being constantly fixed on the preservation of our 
fair Antille by all means imaginable, I left nothing undone on my part 
with the representatives here of Spanish America in order that they 
might remove the peril which threatens those states from this powerful 
republic, and which otherwise will necessarily endanger our own pos- 
sessions. I also reported to Your Excellency the interview between the 
aforesaid gentlemen and the French minister, 1 who had asked me to 
introduce him to them; the two meetings already held; and lastly the 
prudence and tact with which I endeavored to conduct myself in view of 
my official position and of the circumstances of the governments repre- 
sented. 

Having been unceasing in my exertions, I am now able to communi- 
cate to Your Excellency that a prívate but more formal meeting has 

1 Count de Sartiges. 



Project of Latin- American Confederation, 1856 1 o 1 

since taken place at my own house, attended by the diplomatic represen- 
tatives of Guatemala and San Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Perú, 
Venezuela, and Brazil, the only ones at this season in Washington. 
The representatives of México and New Granada, who were absent, 
should likewise be counted on. The result of this long conference has 
been the determination to propose immediately to their governments the 
formation of a species of diet or congress in which all shall be repre- 
sented and which shall provide for the defense of their common inde- 
pendence and establish relations of cióse and permanent unión between 
all ancient Spanish America and Rio Janeiro. The most effective and 
adequate measures, according to the view of these gentlemen, for real- 
izing the purpose indicated, and which should be made the object of 
discussion of the proposed congress, are those which are set down in the 
inclosed document number 1, which they have resolved should be com- 
municated through me only to Spain, though authorizing me to give 
verbal information in detail to my colleagues of England and France. 
So I have done, and both ministers are of the opinión that the step is an 
exceedingly timely one in the present complicated state of things. 

I hasten to inform Your Excellency of all, as is my duty. 

May God preserve Your Excellency many years. 
Washington, February 28, 1856. 

Excellent Sir, Kissing the hands of Your Excellency, I am Your 
Excellency's respectful and faithful servant, 

(signed) Alfonso de Escalante. 

A true copy. 

III. The Articles of Confederation 

Proyecto de una Confederación de los Estados independientes de la 
America española y portuguesa quedando todos ellos en el pleno goce de 
su respectiva soberanía y ligados solamente por la defensa común de 
todos ellos. 

Los obgetos de la Confederación solo serán, hacerse cada Estado 
mas respetable por la unión de todos los Confederados; asegurar asi 
mas y mas la respectiva independencia, garantizarse mutuamente la 
integridad de sus territorios, afianzar la paz interior y exterior y 
estrechar los vínculos de la amistad y las relaciones de comercio que 
exigen la comunidad de intereses. 

Las bases sobre las cuales podría establecerse la confederación parece 
que serian las siguientes : 

1 a. Comprometerse los Confederados á no consentir ninguno de ellos 
que fuesen atacados por nación alguna la independencia, ni la intregridad 
[sic\ de territorio de otro confederado, mirando como enemigo común al 
invasor ó al ofensor de cualquiera de los Estados de la Confederación. 

2a. Comprometerse todos á no ceder jamás, ni á enegenar [enajenar] 
ninguna parte de sus territorios, ni á consentir que dentro de sus límites 
se formen Colonias de naturaleza nacional extrangera, sino que por el 



102 Documents 

contrario todo colono al establecerse en los Estados Confederados esté 
obligado á renunciar á la nacionalidad de su origen jurando no reconocer 
otras leyes, ni otras autoridades, ni otra protección que los del Estado 
en que se establezca. 

3a. Comprometerse del mismo modo á no conceder privilegios para 
hacer caminos, canales, ni obras semejantes, á ciudadanos ó compañías 
extrangeras, sino en el caso de que dichos ciudadanos ó compañías hagan 
la misma renuncia de su nacionalidad y contraigan la misma obligación 
que los Colonos de no reconocer otras leyes, ni otras autoridades, ni otra 
protección que la del Estado en que se hagan aquellas obras; evitando 
así que llegue el caso en que estos privilegios sean motivo de reclama- 
ciones de Gobiernos extrangeros. 

4a. Para estrechar la unión entre los Confederados sería conveniente 
que serian tenidos los ciudadanos de un Estado en todos los demás 
como sí fuesen nativos de ellos, menos para el desempeño de aquellos 
empleos que exigen el nacimiento en el Estado. 

5a. Cada uno de los Estados que formen la alianza podría tener un 
representante permanente en la Corte de Rio Janeiro, en donde se 
debería reunir la Dieta de la Confederación á la cual pertenecería el 
arreglo de todos los negocios de interés y de beneficio general. 

6a. En las discusiones que ocurriesen entre uno y otro Estado de los 
Confederados procurará la Dieta que se transijan las diferencias ami- 
gablemente, evitando con el mayor empeño que se turbe la paz entre los 
aliados, y tratando de qe. reyne entre todos la mas perfecta armonía. 

7a. En el caso no esperado de que ocurra algún motivo de desa- 
venencia entre uno de los Estados confederados y una Nación extrangera, 
la Dieta examinará la cuestión observando los principios de una estricta 
justicia; y si hallase que el Confederado no tiene razón, procurará que 
ceda sus pretencíones, ó dé la satisfacción que sea debida; pero siempre 
resistiendo que se exija del Confederado lo que no sea justo, y lo que 
se oponga á los intereses de la Confederación. 

Esta conforme. 

[Translation] 

Project of a confederation of the independent states of Spanish and 
Portuguese America, all of them remaining in the full enjoyment of 
their respective sovereignty and allied only for the common defense of 
them all. 

The objects of the confederation shall only be to make each state 
more respected by the unión of all the conf ederates ; to insure in this 
manner more and more their respective independence ; to guarantee 
mutually the integrity of their territories ; to assure internal and external 
peace and to bind closer the ties of friendship and the relations of 
commerce which the community of interests demands. 

The bases on which the confederation might be established would 
seem to be the following : 



Project of Latin-American Confederation, 1856 103 

ist. The confederates to bind themselves not to consent, any of 
them, that the independence or integrity of the territory of another shall 
be attacked by any nation, and to treat the invader or offender of any of 
the states of the confederation as a common enemy. 

2d. All to bind themselves never to cede or to aliénate any part 
of their territories ñor to consent that colonies of foreign nationality 
shall be formed within their limits ; but on the contrary that every colonist 
on establishing himself in the confedérate states shall be obliged to re- 
nounce the nationality of his origin and take an oath to recognize no 
other laws, ñor other authority, ñor other protection than those of the 
state in which he settles. 

3d. To bind themselves likewise not to concede privileges to make 
roads, cañáis, or similar works to foreign citizens or companies unless 
these citizens or companies renounce their nationality in the same man- 
ner and contract the same obligation as the colonists to recognize no 
other laws, ñor other authority, ñor other protection than those of the 
state in which they undertake such works; thus preventing these privi- 
leges from giving rise to claims on the part of foreign governments. 

4th. To draw closer the unión of the confederates it would be appro- 
priate to declare that the citizens of one state should be regarded in all 
the others as if they were natives of them, except for the discharge of 
those employments which require birth in the state. 

5th. Each of the states forming the alliance should be entitled to 
have a permanent representative at the court of Rio Janeiro, where the 
diet of the confederation should meet, to which should belong the deter- 
mination of all matters of general interest and benefit. 

6th. In the disputes which arise between one state and another of 
the confederation the diet will contrive to bring about an amicable set- 
tlement, avoiding with the greatest concern any disturbance of the peace 
between the allies, and endeavoring that the most perfect harmony shall 
reign among all. 

7th. In the event, which it is hoped might not occur, that some 
cause of disagreement should arise between one of the confedérate states 
and a foreign nation, the diet will examine the question, observing the 
principies of strictest justice, and, should it find that right is not 
on the side of the confedérate, it will endeavor to cause it to yield its 
claim or to give the satisfaction which is due; but resisting in every 
case a demand on the confedérate which is not just and which is con- 
trary to the interests of the confederation. 

A true copy. 

4. Letter of Stephen R. Mallory, 1861 

The following letter, the manuscript of which is at present in 

the possession of the managing editor, was addressed by Stephen 

R. Mallory, Secretary of the Navy in the Cabinet of President Davis, 

to some friend in Florida. The ñame of the person to whom it was